PhasePot has been used for the simulation of various material processes and microstructures, as shown in the selection of examples below
Surface melting and re-solidification
Surface melting, e.g. by laser, is widely used for cutting, welding and surface modification of metallic materials. PhasePot can be used to simulate grain structure, phase change and solute distribution in the re-solidified region and the heat affected zone.
Dendritic growth is a most common and widely-studied feature in solidification of materials. By combining the phase-field and the Monte-Carlo Potts models, PhasePot provides a unique capacity for the simulation of dendritic patterns that may form in alloys and compounds under different solidification conditions.
Rapid solidification of alloys and compounds can be associated with kinetic effects, such as solute trapping, disorder trapping, inverted partitioning and formation of non-equilibrium microstructures, e.g. consisting of anti-phase domains. PhasePot uses a special phase-field formulation for quantitative simulation of these kinetic effects and non-equilibrium microstructures.
Transient-liquid-phase diffusion bonding with non-planar bond lines, which are favourable in terms of bond strength, can be achieved by imposing a temperature gradient upon the sample. PhasePot can be used to simulate unique features of this process, e.g. formation of morphological instabilities on the retreating melting front because of the so-called 'constitutional superheating' effect.
Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS)
SHS is used as a technique for the synthesis and processing of a wide variety of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, ceramics and composites. PhasePot can be used to simulate the process kinetics and also the reaction mechanism at the microstructure level.
Grain boundary segregation
Mechanical properties of polycrystalline materials are to a large extent influenced by the nature of grain boundaries, which can be manipulated through controlled segregation. PhasePot can be used to simulate segregation and the associated nano-scale phase transformation at grain boundaries of polycrystalline materials, and thus, help with the design of alloys of superior properties.
Electro-deoxidation is an electrochemical process that can be used for direct reduction of metals from their oxides in a simple step. PhasePot can be used to simulate the underlying mechanism and kinetics of electro-deoxidation, and thus, help with the optimisation of this process, e.g. in terms of geometry and porosity level of the cathode.